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Societies 2016, 6(2), 18; doi:10.3390/soc6020018

The Portrayal of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science in Canadian Newspapers: A Content Analysis

Cumming School of Medicine, Department Community Health Sciences, Stream of Community Rehabilitation and Disability Studies, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary AB T2N 4N1, Canada
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Academic Editors: Nick Pollard and Dikaios Sakellariou
Received: 4 February 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring Human Doing through an Occupational Lens)
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Abstract

The primary goal of occupational therapy is to enable people to participate in the activities of everyday life. The demand for occupational therapists in Canada is expected to grow sharply at an annual growth rate of 3.2%, compared to 0.7% for all occupations. At the same time, it is believed by occupational therapists in Canada that the Canadian public does not understand the role of occupational therapy. Occupational science is an emerging basic science field that supports the practice of occupational therapy. Given that newspapers are one source the public uses to obtain information and that newspapers are seen to shape public opinions, the purpose of this study is to investigate how “occupational therapy” is covered in Canadian newspapers from the term’s first appearance in 1917 until 2016 and how “occupational science” is covered from the term’s first appearance in 1989 to 2016. We interrogated the findings through the lens of three non-newspaper sources—two academic journals: Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy (CJOT) and Journal of Occupational Science (JOS); and one Canadian magazine: Occupational Therapy Now (OTN). We found that medical terms were prevalent in the newspaper articles covering occupational therapy similar to the presence of medical terms in the CJOT and OTN. However, the newspapers missed contemporary shifts in occupational therapy as evident in the CJOT, OTN and JOS—such as the increased engagement with enablement, occupational justice and other occupational concepts. The newspapers also failed to portray the societal issues that occupational therapy engages with on behalf of and with their clients, and the newspapers did not cover many of the client groups of occupational therapy. Occupational science was only mentioned in n = 26 articles of the nearly 300 Canadian newspapers covered with no concrete content linked to occupational science. The scope of occupational therapy presented in Canadian newspapers may be one contributing factor to a situation where occupational therapists in Canada think that there is lack of public understanding around their role, as readers are not getting the full picture and as such approach occupational therapy with different expectations. Given the lack of coverage of occupational science, readers will likely obtain limited knowledge about occupational science and its focus. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupational therapy; portrayal of occupational therapy; occupational science; portrayal of occupational science; newspapers; Canada occupational therapy; portrayal of occupational therapy; occupational science; portrayal of occupational science; newspapers; Canada
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chai, T.-Y.E.; Wolbring, G. The Portrayal of Occupational Therapy and Occupational Science in Canadian Newspapers: A Content Analysis. Societies 2016, 6, 18.

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