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Sports 2017, 5(2), 32; doi:10.3390/sports5020032

Effects of 12 Weeks of Tai Chi Chuan Training on Balance and Functional Fitness in Older Japanese Adults

School of Health Sciences, Asahi University, Mizuho 501-0296, Japan
Sport and Life Science, National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Kanoya, Kanoya 891-2393, Japan
Active Aging Association, Nagoya 467-0802, Japan
Department of Public Health Science, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260, USA
Department of Human Performance Studies, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Behm
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 16 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Movement and Training)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [209 KB, uploaded 20 July 2017]


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Tai Chi Chuan on static and dynamic balance, and functional fitness in older adults. Forty-nine volunteers were divided into an exercise group (EX: 9 men and 16 women, average age 72 ± 5 years) and control group (13 men and 11 women, average age 73 ± 6 years). The EX participated in a 12-week supervised exercise program (60 min/day, 2 days/week) that consisted of 10-min warm-up and stretching, 40-min Tai Chi Chuan exercise (long-form Yang style with 108 movements), and 10-min cool-down/relaxation exercises. The control group was asked to not change their physical activity habits. Static (sway velocity standing on firm or foam surfaces with eyes open or closed) and dynamic balance (limits of stability (LOS)), as well as functional fitness measures of body mass; upper- and lower-body strength; and flexibility, mobility, and aerobic fitness were taken before and after the intervention. After the 12-week Tai Chi Chuan exercise program, there were no improvements in any functional fitness or balance variable although components of LOS tended to increase (13.1%, p = 0.052). These results indicate that 12 weeks of Tai Chi Chuan exercise has no significant effect on balance and functional fitness parameters in older Japanese adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan; effect on static and dynamic balance; functional fitness; older adults Tai Chi Chuan; effect on static and dynamic balance; functional fitness; older adults
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Takeshima, N.; Islam, M.M.; Kato, Y.; Koizumi, D.; Narita, M.; Rogers, N.L.; Rogers, M.E. Effects of 12 Weeks of Tai Chi Chuan Training on Balance and Functional Fitness in Older Japanese Adults. Sports 2017, 5, 32.

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