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Sports 2017, 5(1), 8; doi:10.3390/sports5010008

Sex Differences in Countermovement Jump Phase Characteristics

1
Directorate of Sport, Exercise and Physiotherapy, University of Salford, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester, M6 6PU, UK
2
Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Chichester, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 6PE, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eling Douwe de Bruin
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 19 January 2017
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Abstract

The countermovement jump (CMJ) is commonly used to explore sex differences in neuromuscular function, but previous studies have only reported gross CMJ measures or have partly examined CMJ phase characteristics. The purpose of this study was to explore differences in CMJ phase characteristics between male and female athletes by comparing the force-, power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves throughout the entire CMJ, in addition to gross measures. Fourteen men and fourteen women performed three CMJs on a force platform from which a range of kinetic and kinematic variables were calculated via forward dynamics. Jump height (JH), reactive strength index modified, relative peak concentric power, and eccentric and concentric displacement, velocity, and relative impulse were all greater for men (g = 0.58–1.79). Relative force-time curves were similar between sexes, but relative power-, velocity-, and displacement-time curves were greater for men at 90%–95% (immediately before and after peak power), 47%–54% (start of eccentric phase) and 85%–100% (latter half of concentric phase), and 65%–87% (bottom of countermovement and initial concentric phase) of normalized jump time, respectively. The CMJ distinguished between sexes, with men demonstrating greater JH through applying a larger concentric impulse and, thus, achieving greater velocity throughout most of the concentric phase, including take-off. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gender Comparison; force-time; power-time; temporal phase analysis; neuromuscular function Gender Comparison; force-time; power-time; temporal phase analysis; neuromuscular function
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

McMahon, J.J.; Rej, S.J.E.; Comfort, P. Sex Differences in Countermovement Jump Phase Characteristics. Sports 2017, 5, 8.

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