Next Article in Journal
Martial Arts and Metabolic Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Hormonal Profiles and Body Composition in Male College Athletes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sports 2016, 4(2), 27;

Optimal Timing for Post-Activation Potentiation in Women Collegiate Volleyball Players

Department of Physical Education and Human Performance, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT 84720, USA
Kinesiology Department California State University Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA 93955, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eling Douwe de Bruin
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 27 April 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1203 KB, uploaded 6 May 2016]   |  


Post-activation potentiation (PAP) has been shown to acutely amplify muscular power output and may be advantageous for athletes looking to improve performance. PAP may have an acute window of effectiveness between 2 to 20 min. With correct timing and implementation it may be possible to induce PAP in competitive situations. The purpose of this study was to examine the time frame of potentiation following a PAP warm-up in collegiate female volleyball players. In this study, nine female collegiate volleyball players completed three laboratory sessions over the course of 10 days. During the first session, the athlete’s 5-RM back squat was determined for subsequent use as the conditioning activity to initiate PAP. A repeated measures experimental design was then employed for Sessions 2 and 3 where half of the participants alternately performed either a dynamic or PAP warm-up prior to performing a standing long jump (SLJ) at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min. A mixed-factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the two warm-up strategies (PAP vs. dynamic) on standing long jump (SLJ) performance across time. There was a significant effect for time (p < 0.01) and warm-up strategy (p < 0.01). Bonferroni post hoc techniques determined that the SLJs that followed the PAP warm-up were significantly greater at 2 (4.8%), 6 (3.6%), and 10 (3.6%) min compared to SLJs post-dynamic warm-up (p < 0.05). However, those differences did not persist at 14 or 18 min (p > 0.05). Further analysis included non-parametric pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests) between the SLJ scores at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min (PAP vs. dynamic). The non-parametric results were consistent with the parametric results. Within the parameters of this study, it is concluded that performing a 5-RM back squat induces a measureable PAP effect for up to 10 min. View Full-Text
Keywords: back squat; standing long jump; post-activation potentiation (PAP) back squat; standing long jump; post-activation potentiation (PAP)

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ah Sue, R.; Adams, K.J.; DeBeliso, M. Optimal Timing for Post-Activation Potentiation in Women Collegiate Volleyball Players. Sports 2016, 4, 27.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sports EISSN 2075-4663 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top