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Lubricants 2016, 4(4), 36; doi:10.3390/lubricants4040036

Multi-Phase Friction and Wear Reduction by Copper Nanopartices

Fraunhofer IWM MikroTribologie Centrum, Rintheimer Querallee 2a, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
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Academic Editors: Antolin Hernández Battez and Rubén González Rodríguez
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles and Ionic Liquids in Lubrication)
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Abstract

Finely dispersed copper nanoparticles were added as an additive to fully-formulated engine oils. The copper additive was in colloidal form, with an inner core of Cu2+ atoms covered by surfactants to form stable reverse micelles that are completely dispersible in the base oil. The tribological process to form protective films at the metal surface is comprised of three phases. Phase I can be considered a physical process involving the build-up of polar molecules by absorption to produce a friction modifier film, whereas phases II and III have to be treated as mechanochemical processes comprising a combination of redox reactions and a third body formation. The tribological performance was investigated using atomic force microscopy, a microtribometer, a pin-on-disk tribometer in combination with continuous and high-resolution wear measurements with radionuclide technique, and high pressure stressing in a thrust roller bearing test rig. In addition, the nanostructure of the additive was characterized by atomic force microscopy. Finally, the chemical composition of the metal surface was analyzed using photoelectron spectroscopy. View Full-Text
Keywords: copper colloids; lubricated sliding; ultra-low wear; tribofilms copper colloids; lubricated sliding; ultra-low wear; tribofilms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Scherge, M.; Böttcher, R.; Kürten, D.; Linsler, D. Multi-Phase Friction and Wear Reduction by Copper Nanopartices. Lubricants 2016, 4, 36.

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