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Lubricants 2013, 1(4), 132-148; doi:10.3390/lubricants1040132
Review

Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives

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Received: 19 November 2013; in revised form: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 18 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additives for Lubricants)
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Abstract: Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.
Keywords: phosphate ester; anti-wear additive; extreme pressure additive; ZDDP; TCP phosphate ester; anti-wear additive; extreme pressure additive; ZDDP; TCP
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Johnson, D.W.; Hils, J.E. Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives. Lubricants 2013, 1, 132-148.

AMA Style

Johnson DW, Hils JE. Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives. Lubricants. 2013; 1(4):132-148.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Johnson, David W.; Hils, John E. 2013. "Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives." Lubricants 1, no. 4: 132-148.

Lubricants EISSN 2075-4442 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert