TimeTubes: Visualization of Polarization Variations in Blazars
Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan
Department of Information and Computer Science, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Tsuruga, Ikki-machi, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jose L. Gómez, Alan P. Marscher and Svetlana G. Jorstad
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
Optical polarization provides important clues to the magnetic field in blazar jets. It is easy to find noteworthy patterns in the time-series data of the polarization degree (PD) and position angle (PA). On the other hand, we need to see the trajectory of the object in the Stokes
plane when the object has multiple polarized components. In this case, ironically, the more data we have, the more difficult it is to gain any knowledge from it. Here, we introduce TimeTubes, a new visualization scheme to explore the time-series data of polarization observed in blazars. In TimeTubes, the data is represented by tubes in 3D (Q
, and time) space. The measurement errors of Q
, color, and total flux of objects are expressed as the size, color, and brightness of the tubes. As a result, TimeTubes allows us to see the behavior of six variables in one view. We used TimeTubes for our data taken by the Kanata telescope between 2008 and 2014. We found that this tool facilitates the recognition of the patterns in blazar variations; for example, favored PA of flares and PA rotations associated with a series of flares.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Uemura, M.; Itoh, R.; Xu, L.; Nakayama, M.; Wu, H.-Y.; Watanabe, K.; Takahashi, S.; Fujishiro, I. TimeTubes: Visualization of Polarization Variations in Blazars. Galaxies 2016, 4, 23.
Uemura M, Itoh R, Xu L, Nakayama M, Wu H-Y, Watanabe K, Takahashi S, Fujishiro I. TimeTubes: Visualization of Polarization Variations in Blazars. Galaxies. 2016; 4(3):23.
Uemura, Makoto; Itoh, Ryosuke; Xu, Longyin; Nakayama, Masanori; Wu, Hsiang-Yun; Watanabe, Kazuho; Takahashi, Shigeo; Fujishiro, Issei. 2016. "TimeTubes: Visualization of Polarization Variations in Blazars." Galaxies 4, no. 3: 23.
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