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Galaxies 2013, 1(3), 216-260; doi:10.3390/galaxies1030216

Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

1,2,* , 1,2
, 1,2,3
 and 1,2
1 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli "Federico II", Via Cinthia, Napoli I-80126, Italy 2 Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. di Napoli, Via Cinthia, Napoli I-80126, Italy 3 Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (UNAM), AP 70543, México, DF 04510, Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2013 / Revised: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cosmology with Fluid Components)
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The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter) and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R) and f(T) gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R) and f(T) cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.
Keywords: dark energy; cosmography; observational cosmology; alternative theories of gravity dark energy; cosmography; observational cosmology; alternative theories of gravity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Capozziello, S.; De Laurentis, M.; Luongo, O.; Ruggeri, A.C. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids. Galaxies 2013, 1, 216-260.

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