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Diagnostics 2017, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics7040052

Single Domain Antibodies as New Biomarker Detectors

1
Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia
2
Bacterial Pathogenesis and Scabies Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4006, Australia
3
Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
4
Department of Drug Resistance and Diagnostics, Australian Army Malaria Institute, Brisbane 4051, Australia
5
Department of Medical Microbiology & Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
6
Clinical Tropical Medicine Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane 4029, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Biomarkers in Medicine)
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Abstract

Biomarkers are defined as indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have been widely used for early detection, prediction of response after treatment, and for monitoring the progression of diseases. Antibodies represent promising tools for recognition of biomarkers, and are widely deployed as analytical tools in clinical settings. For immunodiagnostics, antibodies are now exploited as binders for antigens of interest across a range of platforms. More recently, the discovery of antibody surface display and combinatorial chemistry techniques has allowed the exploration of new binders from a range of animals, for instance variable domains of new antigen receptors (VNAR) from shark and variable heavy chain domains (VHH) or nanobodies from camelids. These single domain antibodies (sdAbs) have some advantages over conventional murine immunoglobulin owing to the lack of a light chain, making them the smallest natural biomarker binders thus far identified. In this review, we will discuss several biomarkers used as a means to validate diseases progress. The potential functionality of modern singe domain antigen binders derived from phylogenetically early animals as new biomarker detectors for current diagnostic and research platforms development will be described. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibody; biomarker; camelids VHH; diagnostics; shark VNAR; single domain antibody (sdAbs) antibody; biomarker; camelids VHH; diagnostics; shark VNAR; single domain antibody (sdAbs)
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Leow, C.H.; Fischer, K.; Leow, C.Y.; Cheng, Q.; Chuah, C.; McCarthy, J. Single Domain Antibodies as New Biomarker Detectors. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 52.

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