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Diagnostics 2017, 7(3), 38; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7030038

Salivary Immune and Metabolic Marker Analysis (SIMMA): A Diagnostic Test to Predict Caries Risk

Center for Advanced Research in Public Health, FISABIO Foundation, Valencia 46020, Spain
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Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Fluid-Based Molecular Diagnostics)
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Abstract

By using ELISA and colorimetric tests, we have measured 25 compounds in individuals with and without dental caries at different time points of dental biofilm formation and time of the day. We find that some compounds appear to be affected by circadian rhythms, others by dental plaque maturity, and others show constant values during a 24 h period. Using univariate analysis and cross-validation techniques, we have selected six components measured at specific time points that maximize the diagnostic separation of health and disease conditions. Two out of the six selected compounds are related to immune competence, another two to the adhesion capacity of micro-organisms, and another two to acid production or pH buffering. We conclude that, in order to design a robust caries risk test, the time of saliva sampling must be standardized and biomarkers from different categories must be included. The preliminary data shown in this paper provide a proof of principle of a caries risk test based on risk-associated categories. Thus, the test will provide not only a general caries risk assessment, but also the likely biological origin of that risk, namely: immune imbalance, and/or a tendency to adhesion of cariogenic organisms, and/or a lack of acid buffering. When tested longitudinally and validated in larger cohorts, this could open the possibility to develop preventive and personalized treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: saliva; dental caries; circadian rhythms; immune system; buffering capacity; pH; adhesion; microorganisms; toothpaste saliva; dental caries; circadian rhythms; immune system; buffering capacity; pH; adhesion; microorganisms; toothpaste
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mira, A.; Artacho, A.; Camelo-Castillo, A.; Garcia-Esteban, S.; Simon-Soro, A. Salivary Immune and Metabolic Marker Analysis (SIMMA): A Diagnostic Test to Predict Caries Risk. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 38.

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