Next Article in Journal
Ten Important Considerations for Ovarian Cancer Screening
Next Article in Special Issue
Salivary Immune and Metabolic Marker Analysis (SIMMA): A Diagnostic Test to Predict Caries Risk
Previous Article in Journal
An Assessment of Early Response to Targeted Therapy via Molecular Imaging: A Pilot Study of 3′-deoxy-3′[(18)F]-Fluorothymidine Positron Emission Tomography 18F-FLT PET/CT in Prostate Adenocarcinoma
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Pilot Study into the Association between Oral Health Status and Human Papillomavirus—16 Infection
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Diagnostics 2017, 7(2), 21; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7020021

Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

1
Department of Oral Medicine, Islamabad Dental Hospital (IDH), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Prosthodontics and Implantology, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Baqai University, Super Highway, P.O. Box 2407, Karachi 74600, Pakistan
4
Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Dar-Al-Uloom University, Riyadh 13314, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Medicine, Islamabad Dental Hospital (IDH), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
6
Department of Periodontology, Fatima Jinnah Dental College, Karachi 74000, Pakistan
7
Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Al-Taibah University, Madinah Munawwarah 41331, Saudi Arabia
8
Department of Dental Materials, Islamic International Dental College, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 9 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Fluid-Based Molecular Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2127 KB, uploaded 12 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Saliva has been useful as a liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of various oral or systemic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is no exception. While its early detection and prevention is important, salivary cytokines expression, specifically of Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), does contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and these cytokines serve as potential biomarkers. Their excessive production plays a role in cancer progression and establishment of angiogenesis. However, other inflammatory or immunological conditions may affect the levels of cytokines in saliva. This article reviews the expression of levels of specific cytokines i.e., IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α, their signaling pathways in the development of oral cancer, and how they are essential for the diagnosis of OSCC and updates related to it. Apart from serum, the saliva-based test can be a cost-effective tool in the follow-up and diagnosis of OSCC. Moreover, large-scale investigations are still needed for the validation of salivary cytokines. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopsy; saliva; biomarker; interleukin-8; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cancer and salivaomics biopsy; saliva; biomarker; interleukin-8; interleukin-6; tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cancer and salivaomics
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sahibzada, H.A.; Khurshid, Z.; Khan, R.S.; Naseem, M.; Siddique, K.M.; Mali, M.; Zafar, M.S. Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Diagnostics EISSN 2075-4418 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top