Next Article in Journal
Salivary Diagnostics—Point-of-Care diagnostics of MMP-8 in dentistry and medicine
Previous Article in Journal
A Promising Future for Prostate Cancer Diagnostics
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 5; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010005

Air Embolism: Diagnosis, Clinical Management and Outcomes

1
Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, GRB-290A, Boston, MA 02114, USA
2
Mayo Clinic, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, 13400 E Shea Blvd, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Kjaer
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 17 January 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1366 KB, uploaded 17 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Air embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of surgical procedures. Rapid recognition and intervention is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively characterized our experience with air embolism during medical procedures at a tertiary medical center. Electronic medical records were searched for all cases of air embolism over a 25-year period; relevant medical and imaging records were reviewed. Sixty-seven air embolism cases were identified; the mean age was 59 years (range, 3–89 years). Ninety-four percent occurred in-hospital, of which 77.8% were during an operation/invasive procedure. Vascular access-related procedures (33%) were the most commonly associated with air embolism. Clinical signs and symptoms were related to the location the air embolus; 36 cases to the right heart/pulmonary artery, 21 to the cerebrum, and 10 were attributed to patent foramen ovale (PFO). Twenty-one percent of patients underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), 7.5% aspiration of the air, and 63% had no sequelae. Mortality rate was 21%; 69% died within 48 hours. Thirteen patients had immediate cardiac arrest where mortality rate was 53.8%, compared to 13.5% (p = 0.0035) in those without. Air emboli were mainly iatrogenic, primarily associated with endovascular procedures. High clinical suspicion and early treatment are critical for survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: air embolus; angiography; embolization air embolus; angiography; embolization
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

McCarthy, C.J.; Behravesh, S.; Naidu, S.G.; Oklu, R. Air Embolism: Diagnosis, Clinical Management and Outcomes. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 5.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Diagnostics EISSN 2075-4418 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top