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Diagnostics 2016, 6(4), 38; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6040038

Exploring the Limits of Cell Adhesion under Shear Stress within Physiological Conditions and beyond on a Chip

1
Chair for Experimental Physics 1, University of Augsburg, Augsburg 86159, Germany
2
Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, Munich 80799, Germany
3
Augsburg Center for Innovative Technologies (ACIT), Augsburg 86159, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sandeep Kumar Vashist
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lab-on-a-Chip Based Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1957 KB, uploaded 21 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Cell adhesion processes are of ubiquitous importance for biomedical applications such as optimization of implant materials. Here, not only physiological conditions such as temperature or pH, but also topographical structures play crucial roles, as inflammatory reactions after surgery can diminish osseointegration. In this study, we systematically investigate cell adhesion under static, dynamic and physiologically relevant conditions employing a lab-on-a-chip system. We screen adhesion of the bone osteosarcoma cell line SaOs-2 on a titanium implant material for pH and temperature values in the physiological range and beyond, to explore the limits of cell adhesion, e.g., for feverish and acidic conditions. A detailed study of different surface roughness Rq gives insight into the correlation between the cells’ abilities to adhere and withstand shear flow and the topography of the substrates, finding a local optimum at Rq = 22 nm. We use shear stress induced by acoustic streaming to determine a measure for the ability of cell adhesion under an external force for various conditions. We find an optimum of cell adhesion for T = 37 °C and pH = 7.4 with decreasing cell adhesion outside the physiological range, especially for high T and low pH. We find constant detachment rates in the physiological regime, but this behavior tends to collapse at the limits of 41 °C and pH 4. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell adhesion; shear stress; pH; temperature; medical implants; microfluidics; lab-on-a-chip cell adhesion; shear stress; pH; temperature; medical implants; microfluidics; lab-on-a-chip
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stamp, M.E.M.; Jötten, A.M.; Kudella, P.W.; Breyer, D.; Strobl, F.G.; Geislinger, T.M.; Wixforth, A.; Westerhausen, C. Exploring the Limits of Cell Adhesion under Shear Stress within Physiological Conditions and beyond on a Chip. Diagnostics 2016, 6, 38.

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