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Diagnostics 2016, 6(3), 33; doi:10.3390/diagnostics6030033

Evolvable Smartphone-Based Platforms for Point-of-Care In-Vitro Diagnostics Applications

1
Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
3
Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sandeep Kumar Vashist
Received: 27 July 2016 / Revised: 22 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lab-on-a-Chip Based Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [28922 KB, uploaded 3 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips. We argued recently that system evolvability, defined as the design characteristic that facilitates more manageable transitions between system generations via the modification of an inherited design, can help remedy these limitations. In this paper, we discuss how platform-based design can constitute a formal entry point to the design and implementation of evolvable smart device/lab-on-chip systems. We present both a hardware/software design framework and the implementation details of a platform prototype enabling at this stage the interfacing of several lab-on-chip variants relying on current- or impedance-based biosensors. Our findings suggest that several change-enabling mechanisms implemented in the higher abstraction software layers of the system can promote evolvability, together with the design of change-absorbing hardware/software interfaces. Our platform architecture is based on a mobile software application programming interface coupled to a modular hardware accessory. It allows the specification of lab-on-chip operation and post-analytic functions at the mobile software layer. We demonstrate its potential by operating a simple lab-on-chip to carry out the detection of dopamine using various electroanalytical methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: lab-on-chip; smartphone; point-of-care; system evolvability; platform-based design; electrochemistry lab-on-chip; smartphone; point-of-care; system evolvability; platform-based design; electrochemistry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Patou, F.; AlZahra’a Alatraktchi, F.; Kjægaard, C.; Dimaki, M.; Madsen, J.; Svendsen, W.E. Evolvable Smartphone-Based Platforms for Point-of-Care In-Vitro Diagnostics Applications. Diagnostics 2016, 6, 33.

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