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Diagnostics 2013, 3(2), 291-314; doi:10.3390/diagnostics3020291
Review

Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review

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Received: 10 April 2013; in revised form: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance in Prenatal Diagnosis)
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Abstract: Down’s syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births, and is the predominant reason why women choose to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, as invasive tests are associated with around a 1% risk of miscarriage new non-invasive tests have been long sought after. Recently, the most promising approach for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been provided by the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. The clinical application of NIPD for DS detection is not yet applicable, as large scale validation studies in low-risk pregnancies need to be completed. Currently, prenatal screening is still the first line test for the detection of fetal aneuploidy. Screening cannot diagnose DS, but developing a more advanced screening program can help to improve detection rates, and therefore reduce the number of women offered invasive tests. This article describes how the prenatal screening program has developed since the introduction of maternal age as the original “screening” test, and subsequently discusses recent advances in detecting new screening markers with reference to both proteomic and bioinformatic techniques.
Keywords: screening; Down’s syndrome; non-invasive; biomarkers; sonographic markers; next-generation-sequencing screening; Down’s syndrome; non-invasive; biomarkers; sonographic markers; next-generation-sequencing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sillence, K.A.; Madgett, T.E.; Roberts, L.A.; Overton, T.G.; Avent, N.D. Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review. Diagnostics 2013, 3, 291-314.

AMA Style

Sillence KA, Madgett TE, Roberts LA, Overton TG, Avent ND. Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review. Diagnostics. 2013; 3(2):291-314.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sillence, Kelly A.; Madgett, Tracey E.; Roberts, Llinos A.; Overton, Timothy G.; Avent, Neil D. 2013. "Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review." Diagnostics 3, no. 2: 291-314.


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