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Bayesian Estimation of Combined Accuracy for Tests with Verification Bias
Broemeling & Associates Inc., 1023 Fox Ridge Road, Medical Lake, WA 99022, USA
Received: 31 October 2011; in revised form: 30 November 2011 / Accepted: 5 December 2011 / Published: 15 December 2011
Abstract: This presentation will emphasize the estimation of the combined accuracy of two or more tests when verification bias is present. Verification bias occurs when some of the subjects are not subject to the gold standard. The approach is Bayesian where the estimation of test accuracy is based on the posterior distribution of the relevant parameter. Accuracy of two combined binary tests is estimated employing either “believe the positive” or “believe the negative” rule, then the true and false positive fractions for each rule are computed for two tests. In order to perform the analysis, the missing at random assumption is imposed, and an interesting example is provided by estimating the combined accuracy of CT and MRI to diagnose lung cancer. The Bayesian approach is extended to two ordinal tests when verification bias is present, and the accuracy of the combined tests is based on the ROC area of the risk function. An example involving mammography with two readers with extreme verification bias illustrates the estimation of the combined test accuracy for ordinal tests.
Keywords: Bayesian; inverse probability weighting; verification bias; risk score; combined test accuracy
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MDPI and ACS Style
Broemeling, L.D. Bayesian Estimation of Combined Accuracy for Tests with Verification Bias. Diagnostics 2011, 1, 53-76.
Broemeling LD. Bayesian Estimation of Combined Accuracy for Tests with Verification Bias. Diagnostics. 2011; 1(1):53-76.
Broemeling, Lyle D. 2011. "Bayesian Estimation of Combined Accuracy for Tests with Verification Bias." Diagnostics 1, no. 1: 53-76.