Next Article in Journal
Fluorine-Rich Planetary Environments as Possible Habitats for Life
Next Article in Special Issue
On the Contribution of Protein Spatial Organization to the Physicochemical Interconnection between Proteins and Their Cognate mRNAs
Previous Article in Journal
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Its Potential as a Life-Sustaining Solvent in a Planetary Environment
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Evolution of the Ribosome and the Genetic Code
Life 2014, 4(3), 341-373; doi:10.3390/life4030341
Article

Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids

1,* , 2
, 3
, 1
, 4
, 1
 and 1
Received: 29 April 2014; in revised form: 23 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Origins and Early Evolution of RNA)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1572 KB, uploaded 11 August 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Three-dimensional algebraic models, also called Genetic Hotels, are developed to represent the Standard Genetic Code, the Standard tRNA Code (S-tRNA-C), and the Human tRNA code (H-tRNA-C). New algebraic concepts are introduced to be able to describe these models, to wit, the generalization of the 2n-Klein Group and the concept of a subgroup coset with a tail. We found that the H-tRNA-C displayed broken symmetries in regard to the S-tRNA-C, which is highly symmetric. We also show that there are only 12 ways to represent each of the corresponding phenotypic graphs of amino acids. The averages of statistical centrality measures of the 12 graphs for each of the three codes are carried out and they are statistically compared. The phenotypic graphs of the S-tRNA-C display a common triangular prism of amino acids in 10 out of the 12 graphs, whilst the corresponding graphs for the H-tRNA-C display only two triangular prisms. The graphs exhibit disjoint clusters of amino acids when their polar requirement values are used. We contend that the S-tRNA-C is in a frozen-like state, whereas the H-tRNA-C may be in an evolving state.
Keywords: standard tRNA code; human tRNA code; graphs of amino acids; algebraic models; symmetry; evolution genetic code; polar requirement standard tRNA code; human tRNA code; graphs of amino acids; algebraic models; symmetry; evolution genetic code; polar requirement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

José, M.V.; Morgado, E.R.; Guimarães, R.C.; Zamudio, G.S.; de Farías, S.T.; Bobadilla, J.R.; Sosa, D. Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids. Life 2014, 4, 341-373.

AMA Style

José MV, Morgado ER, Guimarães RC, Zamudio GS, de Farías ST, Bobadilla JR, Sosa D. Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids. Life. 2014; 4(3):341-373.

Chicago/Turabian Style

José, Marco V.; Morgado, Eberto R.; Guimarães, Romeu C.; Zamudio, Gabriel S.; de Farías, Sávio T.; Bobadilla, Juan R.; Sosa, Daniela. 2014. "Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids." Life 4, no. 3: 341-373.


Life EISSN 2075-1729 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert