Abstract: Three-dimensional algebraic models, also called Genetic Hotels, are developed to represent the Standard Genetic Code, the Standard tRNA Code (S-tRNA-C), and the Human tRNA code (H-tRNA-C). New algebraic concepts are introduced to be able to describe these models, to wit, the generalization of the 2n-Klein Group and the concept of a subgroup coset with a tail. We found that the H-tRNA-C displayed broken symmetries in regard to the S-tRNA-C, which is highly symmetric. We also show that there are only 12 ways to represent each of the corresponding phenotypic graphs of amino acids. The averages of statistical centrality measures of the 12 graphs for each of the three codes are carried out and they are statistically compared. The phenotypic graphs of the S-tRNA-C display a common triangular prism of amino acids in 10 out of the 12 graphs, whilst the corresponding graphs for the H-tRNA-C display only two triangular prisms. The graphs exhibit disjoint clusters of amino acids when their polar requirement values are used. We contend that the S-tRNA-C is in a frozen-like state, whereas the H-tRNA-C may be in an evolving state.
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José, M.V.; Morgado, E.R.; Guimarães, R.C.; Zamudio, G.S.; de Farías, S.T.; Bobadilla, J.R.; Sosa, D. Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids. Life 2014, 4, 341-373.
José MV, Morgado ER, Guimarães RC, Zamudio GS, de Farías ST, Bobadilla JR, Sosa D. Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids. Life. 2014; 4(3):341-373.
José, Marco V.; Morgado, Eberto R.; Guimarães, Romeu C.; Zamudio, Gabriel S.; de Farías, Sávio T.; Bobadilla, Juan R.; Sosa, Daniela. 2014. "Three-Dimensional Algebraic Models of the tRNA Code and 12 Graphs for Representing the Amino Acids." Life 4, no. 3: 341-373.