Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Life 2014, 4(2), 267-280; doi:10.3390/life4020267
Review

Stem Cells toward the Future: The Space Challenge

1,* , 1,2
 and 3
Received: 30 March 2014; in revised form: 17 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 30 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response of Terrestrial Life to Space Conditions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [600 KB, uploaded 30 May 2014]
Abstract: Astronauts experience weightlessness-induced bone loss due to an unbalanced process of bone remodeling that involves bone mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs), as well as osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. The effects of microgravity on osteo-cells have been extensively studied, but it is only recently that consideration has been given to the role of bone MSCs. These live in adult bone marrow niches, are characterized by their self-renewal and multipotent differentiation capacities, and the published data indicate that they may lead to interesting returns in the biomedical/bioengineering fields. This review describes the published findings concerning bMSCs exposed to simulated/real microgravity, mainly concentrating on how mechanosignaling, mechanotransduction and oxygen influence their proliferation, senescence and differentiation. A comprehensive understanding of bMSC behavior in microgravity and their role in preventing bone loss will be essential for entering the future age of long-lasting, manned space exploration.
Keywords: microgravity; mechanosignaling; RPM; osteoblasts; bone; mesenchymal stem cells; spaceflight microgravity; mechanosignaling; RPM; osteoblasts; bone; mesenchymal stem cells; spaceflight
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Bradamante, S.; Barenghi, L.; Maier, J.A. Stem Cells toward the Future: The Space Challenge. Life 2014, 4, 267-280.

AMA Style

Bradamante S, Barenghi L, Maier JA. Stem Cells toward the Future: The Space Challenge. Life. 2014; 4(2):267-280.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bradamante, Silvia; Barenghi, Livia; Maier, Jeanette A. 2014. "Stem Cells toward the Future: The Space Challenge." Life 4, no. 2: 267-280.

Life EISSN 2075-1729 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert