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Minerals 2018, 8(6), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8060246

Hydrothermal Synthesized and Alkaline Activated Carbons Prepared from Glucose and Fructose—Detailed Characterization and Testing in Heavy Metals and Methylene Blue Removal

1
Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića-Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2
Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
3
Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 3 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 9 June 2018
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Abstract

In the presented paper, activated carbons were prepared from fructose and glucose, and activating agents (KOH, NaOH, LiOH) by hydrothermal treatment (HTC) treatment. After preparation, samples were characterized in details. Different techniques were used: x-ray powder diffraction analysis, Raman spectral analysis, elemental analysis, and determination of textural and morphological properties. Obtained results showed dependence of investigated properties and the nature of precursors (glucose or fructose) as well as the type of hydroxides used as activating agents. After characterization, samples were tested as materials for heavy metals (Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+) and methylene blue removal. Also, adsorption experiments were performed on wastewaters taken from tailings of the lead and zinc mine and kinetic of the methylene blue removal was studied. The factors which distinguished the KOH activated samples were high yield (~14%), content of organic carbon (63–74%), porosity and specific surface area (SBET ~700–1360 m2/g), a low degree of the crystal phase, indications that potassium ions may be included in heavy metals removal, good removal of the heavy metal ions (~47–59 mg/g for Pb2+, ~21–27 mg/g for Cd2+ and ~6–10 mg/g for Zn2+) and fast (~10–30 min) and good methylene blue (~60–200 mg/g) removal. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose; fructose; activated carbon; hydrothermal treatment; hydroxide activation; heavy metals; methylene blue glucose; fructose; activated carbon; hydrothermal treatment; hydroxide activation; heavy metals; methylene blue
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Krstić, S.; Kragović, M.; Pagnacco, M.; Dodevski, V.; Kaluđerović, B.; Momčilović, M.; Ristović, I.; Stojmenović, M. Hydrothermal Synthesized and Alkaline Activated Carbons Prepared from Glucose and Fructose—Detailed Characterization and Testing in Heavy Metals and Methylene Blue Removal. Minerals 2018, 8, 246.

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