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Minerals 2018, 8(4), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8040143

Basic Characteristics of Hemimorphite and Its Transformation Mechanism with Na2CO3

1
State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Meal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093, China
2
Faculty of Land Resource Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650000, China
3
School of Chemical Engineering & Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract

The crystal of hemimorphite is a non-conductor. The Si–O bond in the crystal is strong, whereas the Zn–O bond is weak. These properties lead to the easy breakage of the Zn–O bond in the crushing process of hemimorphite. Thus, the interaction between minerals and polar water molecules is strong, and natural floatability of ores is poor. This study systematically investigated the characteristics of hemimorphite and its action mechanism with Na2CO3. Results of SEM-EDS showed that the surface of hemimorphite dissolved after interacting with Na2CO3, and the contents of Si and O decreased, whereas Zn and C increased. XPS analysis showed that the carbonate group was detected. The interaction between CO32− and hemimorphite was calculated using the first principles calculation based on density functional theory. The results indicate that an O atom in CO32− interacted with Zn2+ from the (100) plane of hemimorphite. The interaction between Zn and O atoms was not strong, and the Zn atoms were not completely displaced, which was proven by density of state analysis and the EDS and XPS results. The Mulliken population showed that the O–Zn bond was the atomic bonding of CO32− with Zn2+ and exhibited properties of ionic bonds. Thus, hemimorphite transformed to smithsonite-like mineral (ZnCO3) when acting with CO32−. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium carbonate (Na2CO3); hemimorphite; transformation mechanism; smithsonite-like mineral sodium carbonate (Na2CO3); hemimorphite; transformation mechanism; smithsonite-like mineral
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Wang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Liu, D.; Cao, S.; Song, K.; Jing, M.; Li, K.; Wu, L.; Liu, R. Basic Characteristics of Hemimorphite and Its Transformation Mechanism with Na2CO3. Minerals 2018, 8, 143.

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