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Minerals 2018, 8(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8030090

Sequential Transformation Behavior of Iron-Bearing Minerals during Underground Coal Gasification

School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
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Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Mineral Matter in Coal and Coal Combustion Products)
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Abstract

Detailed mineralogical information from underground coal gasification (UCG) is essential to better understand the chemical reactions far below the surface. It is of great scientific significance to study the mineral transformation and identify the typical minerals in certain process conditions, because it may help to ensure the stable operation of gasification processes and improve the utilization efficiency of coal seams. The transformation of iron-bearing minerals has the typical characteristics during the UCG process and is expected to indicate the process parameters. In this paper, UCG progress was subdivided into pyrolysis, reduction and oxidation stages, and the progressive coal conversion products were prepared. Two types of lignite with different iron contents, Ulankarma and Ulanqab coals, were used in this study. The minerals in the coal transformation products were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope coupled with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The thermodynamic calculation performed using the phase diagram of FactSage 7.1 was used to help to understand the transformation of minerals. The results indicate that the transformation behavior of iron-bearing minerals in the two lignites are similar during the pyrolysis process, in which pyrite (FeS2) in the raw coal is gradually converted into pyrrhotite (Fe1−xS). In the reduction stage, pyrrhotite is transformed into magnetite (Fe3O4) and then changes to FeO. The reaction of FeO and Al2O3 in the low iron coal produces hercynite above 1000 °C because of the difference in the contents of Si and Al, while in the high iron coal, FeO reacts with SiO2 to generate augite (Fe2Si2O6). When the temperature increases to 1400 °C, both hercynite and augite are converted to the thermodynamically-stable sekaninaite. View Full-Text
Keywords: underground coal gasification; hyper-iron coal; coal ash; mineralogy underground coal gasification; hyper-iron coal; coal ash; mineralogy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Liu, S.; Ma, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Qi, K. Sequential Transformation Behavior of Iron-Bearing Minerals during Underground Coal Gasification. Minerals 2018, 8, 90.

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