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Minerals 2017, 7(11), 212; doi:10.3390/min7110212

The Use of Univariate and Multivariate Analyses in the Geochemical Exploration, Ravanj Lead Mine, Delijan, Iran

Department of Earth Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
Department of Geology, Brandon University, Brandon, MB R7A 6A9, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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A geochemical exploration program was applied to recognize the anomalous geochemical haloes at the Ravanj lead mine, Delijan, Iran. Sampling of unweathered rocks were undertaken across rock exposures on a 10 × 10 meter grid (n = 302) as well as the accessible parts of underground mine A (n = 42). First, the threshold values of all elements were determined using the cut-off values used in the exploratory data analysis (EDA) method. Then, for further studies, elements with lognormal distributions (Pb, Zn, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Sb, S, Sr, Th, Ba, Bi, Fe, Ni and Mn) were selected. Robustness against outliers is achieved by application of central log ratio transformation to address the closure problems with compositional data prior to principle components analysis (PCA). Results of these analyses show that, in the Ravanj deposit, Pb mineralization is characterized by a Pb-Ba-Ag-Sb ± Zn ± Cd association. The supra-mineralization haloes are characterized by barite and tetrahedrite in a Ba- Th- Ag- Cu- Sb- As- Sr association and sub-mineralization haloes are comprised of pyrite and tetrahedrite, probably reflecting a Fe-Cu-As-Bi-Ni-Co-Mo-Mn association. Using univariate and multivariate geostatistical analyses (e.g., EDA and robust PCA), four anomalies were detected and mapped in Block A of the Ravanj deposit. Anomalies 1 and 2 are around the ancient orebodies. Anomaly 3 is located in a thin bedded limestone-shale intercalation unit that does not show significant mineralization. Drilling of the fourth anomaly suggested a low grade, non-economic Pb mineralization. View Full-Text
Keywords: exploratory data analysis; robust principal components analysis; geochemical halo exploratory data analysis; robust principal components analysis; geochemical halo

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Nejadhadad, M.; Taghipour, B.; Karimzadeh Somarin, A. The Use of Univariate and Multivariate Analyses in the Geochemical Exploration, Ravanj Lead Mine, Delijan, Iran. Minerals 2017, 7, 212.

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