Next Article in Journal
Mineralogical Distribution of Germanium, Gallium and Indium at the Mt Carlton High-Sulfidation Epithermal Deposit, NE Australia, and Comparison with Similar Deposits Worldwide
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Heating Rate on Pyrolysis Behavior and Kinetic Characteristics of Siderite
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Minerals 2017, 7(11), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7110212

The Use of Univariate and Multivariate Analyses in the Geochemical Exploration, Ravanj Lead Mine, Delijan, Iran

1
Department of Earth Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454, Iran
2
Department of Geology, Brandon University, Brandon, MB R7A 6A9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7549 KB, uploaded 4 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

A geochemical exploration program was applied to recognize the anomalous geochemical haloes at the Ravanj lead mine, Delijan, Iran. Sampling of unweathered rocks were undertaken across rock exposures on a 10 × 10 meter grid (n = 302) as well as the accessible parts of underground mine A (n = 42). First, the threshold values of all elements were determined using the cut-off values used in the exploratory data analysis (EDA) method. Then, for further studies, elements with lognormal distributions (Pb, Zn, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Sb, S, Sr, Th, Ba, Bi, Fe, Ni and Mn) were selected. Robustness against outliers is achieved by application of central log ratio transformation to address the closure problems with compositional data prior to principle components analysis (PCA). Results of these analyses show that, in the Ravanj deposit, Pb mineralization is characterized by a Pb-Ba-Ag-Sb ± Zn ± Cd association. The supra-mineralization haloes are characterized by barite and tetrahedrite in a Ba- Th- Ag- Cu- Sb- As- Sr association and sub-mineralization haloes are comprised of pyrite and tetrahedrite, probably reflecting a Fe-Cu-As-Bi-Ni-Co-Mo-Mn association. Using univariate and multivariate geostatistical analyses (e.g., EDA and robust PCA), four anomalies were detected and mapped in Block A of the Ravanj deposit. Anomalies 1 and 2 are around the ancient orebodies. Anomaly 3 is located in a thin bedded limestone-shale intercalation unit that does not show significant mineralization. Drilling of the fourth anomaly suggested a low grade, non-economic Pb mineralization. View Full-Text
Keywords: exploratory data analysis; robust principal components analysis; geochemical halo exploratory data analysis; robust principal components analysis; geochemical halo
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nejadhadad, M.; Taghipour, B.; Karimzadeh Somarin, A. The Use of Univariate and Multivariate Analyses in the Geochemical Exploration, Ravanj Lead Mine, Delijan, Iran. Minerals 2017, 7, 212.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top