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Minerals 2016, 6(1), 10; doi:10.3390/min6010010

Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses

1
IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Sorbonne Universités, MNHN, UPMC, IRD UMR 206, Paris 75005, France
2
Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
3
Laboratoire de Réactivité de Surface (LRS), Sorbonne Universités, UMR CNRS 7197, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 3 rue Galilée, Ivry-sur-Seine 94200, France
4
Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UJF, CNRS, IMT, NUS, Image and Pervasive Access Lab. (IPAL), Singapore 138632, Singapore
5
Bioinformatics Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 138671, Singapore
6
France Chimie Métallurgique des Terres Rares, ICMPE, UMR 7182, CNRS, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais Cedex, France
7
Geomicrobiology Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0450, USA
8
Unité d’Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex 91405, France
9
CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, I2BC UMR9198, LBBC, Bat 142 CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Catherine W. Skinner
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 20 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 3 February 2016
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Abstract

The recent discovery of intracellular carbonatogenesis in several cyanobacteria species has challenged the traditional view that this process was extracellular and not controlled. However, a detailed analysis of the size distribution, chemical composition and 3-D-arrangement of carbonates in these cyanobacteria is lacking. Here, we characterized these features in Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora C7 and Candidatus Synechococcus calcipolaris G9 by conventional transmission electron microscopy, tomography, ultramicrotomy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Both Ca. G. lithophora C7 and Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 formed numerous polyphosphate granules adjacent or engulfing Ca-carbonate inclusions when grown in phosphate-rich solutions. Ca-carbonates were scattered within Ca. G. lithophora C7 cells under these conditions, but sometimes arranged in one or several chains. In contrast, Ca-carbonates formed at cell septa in Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 and were segregated equally between daughter cells after cell division, arranging as distorted disks at cell poles. The size distribution of carbonates evolved from a positively to a negatively skewed distribution as particles grew. Conventional ultramicrotomy did not preserve Ca-carbonates explaining partly why intracellular calcification has been overlooked in the past. All these new observations allow discussing with unprecedented insight some nucleation and growth processes occurring in intracellularly calcifying cyanobacteria with a particular emphasis on the possible involvement of intracellular compartments and cytoskeleton. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcification; cyanobacteria; ACC; STXM; tomography; particle size distribution; polyphosphate; biomineralization; carboxysome; FtsZ calcification; cyanobacteria; ACC; STXM; tomography; particle size distribution; polyphosphate; biomineralization; carboxysome; FtsZ
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, J.; Margaret Oliver, I.; Cam, N.; Boudier, T.; Blondeau, M.; Leroy, E.; Cosmidis, J.; Skouri-Panet, F.; Guigner, J.-M.; Férard, C.; Poinsot, M.; Moreira, D.; Lopez-Garcia, P.; Cassier-Chauvat, C.; Chauvat, F.; Benzerara, K. Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses. Minerals 2016, 6, 10.

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