Minerals 2013, 3(4), 427-449; doi:10.3390/min3040427
Article

Mineralogical Study of a Biologically-Based Treatment System That Removes Arsenic, Zinc and Copper from Landfill Leachate

1 Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada 2 Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2207 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2013; in revised form: 27 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interactions between Microbes and Minerals)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [7315 KB, Updated Version, uploaded 18 December 2013 19:19 CET]
The original version is still available [7323 KB, uploaded 16 December 2013 19:39 CET]
Abstract: Mineralogical characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a high throughput automated quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy (QEMSCAN) was conducted on samples from a sulphate-reducing biochemical reactor (BCR) treating high concentrations of metals (As, Zn, Cu) in smelter waste landfill seepage. The samples were also subjected to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of specific particles. The bulk analysis results revealed that the samples consisted mainly of silicate and carbonate minerals. More detailed phase analysis indicated four different classes: zinc-arsenic sulphosalts/sulphates, zinc-arsenic oxides, zinc phosphates and zinc-lead sulphosalts/sulphates. This suggests that sulphates and sulphides are the predominant types of Zn and As minerals formed in the BCR. Sphalerite (ZnS) was a common mineral observed in many of the samples. In addition, X-ray point analysis showed evidence of As and Zn coating around feldspar and amphibole particles. The presence of arsenic-zinc-iron, with or without cadmium particles, indicated arsenopyrite minerals. Copper-iron-sulphide particles suggested chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and tennantite (Cu,Fe)12As4S13. Microbial communities found in each sample were correlated with metal content to describe taxonomic groups associated with high-metal samples. The research results highlight mineral grains that were present or formed at the site that might be the predominant forms of immobilized arsenic, zinc and copper.
Keywords: arsenic; zinc; copper; biochemical reactor; geomicrobiology; biomineralization; QEMSCAN; mining

Supplementary Files

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Khoshnoodi, M.; Dipple, G.; Baldwin, S.A. Mineralogical Study of a Biologically-Based Treatment System That Removes Arsenic, Zinc and Copper from Landfill Leachate. Minerals 2013, 3, 427-449.

AMA Style

Khoshnoodi M, Dipple G, Baldwin SA. Mineralogical Study of a Biologically-Based Treatment System That Removes Arsenic, Zinc and Copper from Landfill Leachate. Minerals. 2013; 3(4):427-449.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khoshnoodi, Maryam; Dipple, Gregory; Baldwin, Susan A. 2013. "Mineralogical Study of a Biologically-Based Treatment System That Removes Arsenic, Zinc and Copper from Landfill Leachate." Minerals 3, no. 4: 427-449.

Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert