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Symmetry 2011, 3(3), 524-540; doi:10.3390/sym3030524

Action Duality: A Constructive Principle for Quantum Foundations

Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San José, CA 95192-0106, USA
Centre for Time, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 17 July 2011 / Published: 27 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Symmetry)
Download PDF [322 KB, uploaded 27 July 2011]


An analysis of the path integral approach to quantum theory motivates the hypothesis that two experiments with the same classical action should have dual ontological descriptions. If correct, this hypothesis would not only constrain realistic interpretations of quantum theory, but would also act as a constructive principle, allowing any realistic model of one experiment to generate a corresponding model for its action-dual. Two pairs of action-dual experiments are presented, including one experiment that violates the Bell inequality and yet is action-dual to a single particle. The implications generally support retrodictive and retrocausal interpretations.
Keywords: quantum foundations; path integral; time symmetry; entanglement; sum over histories; retrocausality quantum foundations; path integral; time symmetry; entanglement; sum over histories; retrocausality
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wharton, K.B.; Miller, D.J.; Price, H. Action Duality: A Constructive Principle for Quantum Foundations. Symmetry 2011, 3, 524-540.

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