Next Article in Journal
Positive Cosmological Constant and Quantum Theory
Previous Article in Journal
Structures of Annulenes and Model Annulene Systems in the Ground and Lowest Excited States
Previous Article in Special Issue
Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Symmetry 2010, 2(4), 1925-1944;

Three-Dimensional Facial Asymmetry in Attractive and Normal People from Childhood to Young Adulthood

Laboratorio di Anatomia Funzionale dell’Apparato Stomatognatico, Dipartimento di Morfologia Umana e Scienze Biomediche “Città Studi”, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy
Dental, Oral, and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Section of Orthodontics, University Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Beauty)
Download PDF [161 KB, uploaded 9 November 2010]   |  


We are currently investigating measurable esthetic characteristics in persons considered “attractive” by the media. Three-dimensional soft-tissue facial asymmetry was quantified in 380 attractive (148 males, 232 females) and 669 control (397 males, 272 females) healthy persons aged 4–30 years. The coordinates of 50 facial landmarks were collected by a computerized digitizer, and asymmetry computed. Soft-tissue facial asymmetries reduced as a function of age in all cases. Attractive children were more symmetric than control children, but the reverse was true for young adults. The effect of symmetry on attractiveness seems to change as a function of age.
Keywords: attractiveness; face; symmetry; three-dimensional attractiveness; face; symmetry; three-dimensional

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sforza, C.; Laino, A.; Grandi, G.; Pisoni, L.; Ferrario, V.F. Three-Dimensional Facial Asymmetry in Attractive and Normal People from Childhood to Young Adulthood. Symmetry 2010, 2, 1925-1944.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top