Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra
Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, Ghent University, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
California Nanosystems Institute and Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
The icosahedron and the dodecahedron have the same graph structures as their algebraic conjugates, the great dodecahedron and the great stellated dodecahedron. All four polyhedra are equilateral and have planar faces—thus “EP”—and display icosahedral symmetry. However, the latter two (star polyhedra) are non-convex and “pathological” because of intersecting faces. Approaching the problem analytically, we sought alternate EP-embeddings for Platonic and Archimedean solids. We prove that the number of equations—E
edge length equations (enforcing equilaterality) and
face (torsion) equations (enforcing planarity)—and of variables (
) are equal. Therefore, solutions of the equations up to equivalence generally leave no degrees of freedom. As a result, in general there is a finite (but very large) number of solutions. Unfortunately, even with state-of-the-art computer algebra, the resulting systems of equations are generally too complicated to completely solve within reasonable time. We therefore added an additional constraint, symmetry, specifically requiring solutions to display (at least) tetrahedral symmetry. We found 77 non-classical embeddings, seven without intersecting faces—two, four and one, respectively, for the (graphs of the) dodecahedron, the icosidodecahedron and the rhombicosidodecahedron.
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Coolsaet, K.; Schein, S. Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra. Symmetry 2018, 10, 382.
Coolsaet K, Schein S. Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra. Symmetry. 2018; 10(9):382.
Coolsaet, Kris; Schein, Stan. 2018. "Some New Symmetric Equilateral Embeddings of Platonic and Archimedean Polyhedra." Symmetry 10, no. 9: 382.
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