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Antibodies 2016, 5(1), 3; doi:10.3390/antib5010003

Anticytokine Autoantibodies: Association with Infection and Immune Dysregulation

1
Division of Pathology, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80015, USA
2
National Jewish Health Advanced Diagnostic Laboratories, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80015, USA
3
Immunology Department, PathWest Laboratory Medicine WA, Perth 6009, Australia
4
School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christiane Hampe
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auto-Antibody and Autoimmune Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [438 KB, uploaded 15 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

The association of autoantibodies to cytokines with immune deficiency, autoimmunity and/or immune dysregulation is increasingly being recognized. For example, autoantibodies to interferon gamma have been found to be associated with chronic, treatment refractory infections with intracellular organisms such as mycobacteria, autoantibodies to interleukin 17 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and anti-interferon alpha autoantibodies with systemic lupus erythematosus. While low titer autoantibodies to these and other cytokines may be detected in normal individuals, patients with infectious or autoimmune manifestations tend to have high titer autoantibodies that may block or potentiate the function of the respective cytokine. Recognition of these autoantibodies is important because it may direct treatment toward a combination of adjunctive immunotherapy to modulate the autoantibody level while continuing with appropriate anti-microbial therapy. This review focuses on the anti-cytokine autoantibodies documented to date, their autoimmune, immune dysregulation and infectious disease associations, methods for detection of these antibodies and potential treatment options. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytokines; autoantibodies; interleukin; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; ARDS; chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis; SLE; rheumatoid arthritis; immune dysregulation; immune deficiency cytokines; autoantibodies; interleukin; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; ARDS; chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis; SLE; rheumatoid arthritis; immune dysregulation; immune deficiency
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Knight, V.; Merkel, P.A.; O’Sullivan, M.D. Anticytokine Autoantibodies: Association with Infection and Immune Dysregulation. Antibodies 2016, 5, 3.

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