Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Regulatory B-Cells in Transplantation
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Communication between B-Cells and Microbiota for the Maintenance of Intestinal Homeostasis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Antibodies 2013, 2(4), 554-586; doi:10.3390/antib2040554

Regulation of Germinal Center Reactions by B and T Cells

1
Center for Immunology and Autoimmune Diseases, Institute of Molecular Medicine, the University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Department of Immunology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
4
Department of Pediatrics, the University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 15 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B Cells and Immunological Tolerance)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [353 KB, uploaded 23 October 2013]   |  

Abstract

Break of B cell tolerance to self-antigens results in the development of autoantibodies and, thus, leads to autoimmunity. How B cell tolerance is maintained during active germinal center (GC) reactions is yet to be fully understood. Recent advances revealed several subsets of T cells and B cells that can positively or negatively regulate GC B cell responses in vivo. IL-21-producing CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells comprise a distinct lineage of helper T cells—termed follicular helper T cells (TFH)—that can provide help for the development of GC reactions where somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation take place. Although the function of TFH cells is beneficial in generating high affinity antibodies against infectious agents, aberrant activation of TFH cell or B cell to self-antigens results in autoimmunity. At least three subsets of immune cells have been proposed as regulatory cells that can limit such antibody-mediated autoimmunity, including follicular regulatory T cells (TFR), Qa-1 restricted CD8+ regulatory T cells (CD8+TREG), and regulatory B cells (BREG). In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of GC B cell regulation with specific emphasis on the newly identified immune cell subsets involved in this process.
Keywords: TFH; TFR; BREG; Qa-1 restricted CD8+TREG; Germinal center; B cells; antibody TFH; TFR; BREG; Qa-1 restricted CD8+TREG; Germinal center; B cells; antibody
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.U.; Liu, X.; Tanaka, S.; Tran, D.Q.; Chung, Y. Regulation of Germinal Center Reactions by B and T Cells. Antibodies 2013, 2, 554-586.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Antibodies EISSN 2073-4468 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top