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Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 March 2012; in revised form: 1 May 2012 / Accepted: 8 May 2012 / Published: 15 May 2012
Abstract: Antibody-based immunotoxins comprise an important group in targeted cancer therapeutics. These chimeric proteins are a form of biological guided missiles that combine a targeting moiety with a potent effector molecule. The targeting moiety is mostly a monoclonal antibody (MAb) or a recombinant antibody-based fragment that confers target specificity to the immunotoxin. The effector domain is a potent protein toxin of bacterial or plant origin, which, following binding to the target cells, undergoes internalization and causes cell death. Over time and following research progression, immunotoxins become better fitted to their purpose, losing immunogenic fragments and non-specific targeting moieties. Many immunotoxins have gone through clinical evaluation. Some of these have been shown to be active and work is progressing with them in the form of further clinical trials. Others, mostly developed in the previous century, failed to generate a response in patients, or even caused undesired side effects. This article reviews the antibody and protein-toxin based immunotoxins that were clinically evaluated up to the present day.
Keywords: immunotoxin; cancer therapy; clinical trials; monoclonal antibody; Pseudomonas exotoxin A; ricin toxin
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Becker, N.; Benhar, I. Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer. Antibodies 2012, 1, 39-69.
Becker N, Benhar I. Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer. Antibodies. 2012; 1(1):39-69.
Becker, Nurit; Benhar, Itai. 2012. "Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer." Antibodies 1, no. 1: 39-69.