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Antibodies 2012, 1(1), 39-69; doi:10.3390/antib1010039

Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer

 and *
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 March 2012 / Revised: 1 May 2012 / Accepted: 8 May 2012 / Published: 15 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modes of Antibody Action for Cancer Therapy)
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Antibody-based immunotoxins comprise an important group in targeted cancer therapeutics. These chimeric proteins are a form of biological guided missiles that combine a targeting moiety with a potent effector molecule. The targeting moiety is mostly a monoclonal antibody (MAb) or a recombinant antibody-based fragment that confers target specificity to the immunotoxin. The effector domain is a potent protein toxin of bacterial or plant origin, which, following binding to the target cells, undergoes internalization and causes cell death. Over time and following research progression, immunotoxins become better fitted to their purpose, losing immunogenic fragments and non-specific targeting moieties. Many immunotoxins have gone through clinical evaluation. Some of these have been shown to be active and work is progressing with them in the form of further clinical trials. Others, mostly developed in the previous century, failed to generate a response in patients, or even caused undesired side effects. This article reviews the antibody and protein-toxin based immunotoxins that were clinically evaluated up to the present day.
Keywords: immunotoxin; cancer therapy; clinical trials; monoclonal antibody; Pseudomonas exotoxin A; ricin toxin immunotoxin; cancer therapy; clinical trials; monoclonal antibody; Pseudomonas exotoxin A; ricin toxin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Becker, N.; Benhar, I. Antibody-Based Immunotoxins for the Treatment of Cancer. Antibodies 2012, 1, 39-69.

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