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Atmosphere 2018, 9(9), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9090351

Exposure to Outdoor Particles (PM2.5) and Associated Child Morbidity and Mortality in Socially Deprived Neighborhoods of Nairobi, Kenya

1
African Population and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 10787, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
2
Center for Research in Therapeutic Sciences (CREATES), Strathmore University, P.O. Box 55086, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya
3
Health Systems Evaluation and Evidence, Alberta Health Services, 11402 University Avenue, Aberhart Centre, Edmonton, AB T6G 2J3, Canada
4
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts of Air Pollution on Human Health)
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Abstract

Exposure to air pollution is associated with adverse health outcomes. However, the health burden related to ambient outdoor air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. This study examined the relationship between exposure to outdoor air pollution and child health in urban slums of Nairobi, Kenya. We conducted a semi-ecological study among children under 5 years of age from two slum areas and exposure measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5) at the village level were aligned to data from a retrospective cohort study design. We used logistic and Poisson regression models to ascertain the associations between PM2.5 exposure level and child morbidity and mortality. Compared to those in low-pollution areas (PM2.5 < 25 µg/m3), children in high-pollution areas (PM2.5 ≥ 25 µg/m3) were at significantly higher risk for morbidity in general (odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.41) and, specifically, cough (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.20–1.48). Exposure to high levels of pollution was associated with a high child mortality rate from all causes (IRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.08–1.39) and respiratory causes (IRR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.88–1.42). The findings indicate that there are associated adverse health outcomes with air pollution in urban slums. Further research on air pollution health impact assessments in similar urban areas is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; child health; child morbidity; child mortality; particulate matter; urban poor air pollution; child health; child morbidity; child mortality; particulate matter; urban poor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Egondi, T.; Ettarh, R.; Kyobutungi, C.; Ng, N.; Rocklöv, J. Exposure to Outdoor Particles (PM2.5) and Associated Child Morbidity and Mortality in Socially Deprived Neighborhoods of Nairobi, Kenya. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 351.

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