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Atmosphere 2018, 9(4), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos9040120

Modelling of Basin Wide Daily Evapotranspiration with a Partial Integration of Remote Sensing Data

1
Hidrokonzalt Projektiranje Ltd., 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Water Management Institute, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 17 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Climatology and Meteorology)
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Abstract

Evapotranspiration (ET) is the most significant water balance component and is also a very complex component to evaluate in spatio–temporal scales. Remotely-sensed data greatly increases the accuracy of basin wide ET estimation but only in periods with available satellite images. This paper describes an attempt to estimate daily ET regardless of the availability of the satellite images. The method is based on application of the interpolated evaporative fraction (Λ) from “historical” satellite images to periods with no satellite data available. Basin wide daily ET is obtained by combining interpolated Λ and standard PET methods on meteorological stations. The reliability of such approach was evaluated by comparing the obtained daily ET to the SEBAL ET estimates through the analysis of residuals (Δ), standard deviations of residuals (σ) and the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) over the basin. The SEBAL ET estimates were validated with the data from two lysimeters. The discrepancy of obtained ET versus the SEBAL ET estimates (Δ = 0.13 mm day−1, σ = 0.64 mm day−1, NSE = 0.07) indicated that the proposed concept has relatively high accuracy, which is notably higher than the Penman–Monteith interpolated ET estimates (Δ = 1.94 mm day−1, σ = 1.03 mm day−1, NSE = −4.71). It was shown that a total of five images can provide a reliable estimate of interpolated Λ and thus represent specific characteristics of a basin. As the presented concept requires minimum remote sensing data and ground based inputs, it could be applied to estimate basin wide daily ET in data scarce regions and in periods with no satellite images available. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; spatial variability; remote sensing; evaporative fraction evapotranspiration; spatial variability; remote sensing; evaporative fraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ivezic, V.; Bekic, D.; Horvat, B. Modelling of Basin Wide Daily Evapotranspiration with a Partial Integration of Remote Sensing Data. Atmosphere 2018, 9, 120.

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