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Atmosphere 2017, 8(9), 167; doi:10.3390/atmos8090167

Emission Inventory of On-Road Transport in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) Development during 2007 to 2015 Using the GAINS Model

The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT), Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Center of Excellence on Energy Technology and Environment (CEE-PERDO), Ministry of Education, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Air Pollution)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [15281 KB, uploaded 8 September 2017]   |  


Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR), including the capital city and five adjacent provinces, constitutes one of the top 10 megacities experiencing serious traffic congestion in the world, leading to air quality problems with significant adverse human health risks. Previously, there have been many operations planned to influence the fuel consumption and emissions from the on-road transport sector in the BMR area. It is necessary to estimate emissions using detailed information in order to thoroughly understand the reason for changes in emission levels and their impact on air quality. This paper aims to determine the successful implementation of energy and air pollution control policies in Thailand through an investigation of the emissions inventory of on-road transport in BMR, including ozone precursors (CO, NOX, Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) ), greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O), acidic substances (SO2 and NH3), and particulate matters (PM2.5, PM10, Black Carbon (BC), Organic Carbon (OC)) during the period from 2007 to 2015, using the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model based on the country-specific activity data together with the emission factor from the GAINS-Asia database. This study found that the amount of exhaust emissions over the BMR area in the year 2015 (and the trend during the period from 2007 to 2015) is approximately 139 kt of CO (−7.9%), 103 kt of NOX (−4.1%), 19.9 kt of NMVOC (−6.7%), 15 kt of CO2 (+1.6%), 8.6 kt of CH4 (+6.8%), 0.59 kt of N2O (+1.3%), 0.87 kt of SO2 (−25.8%), 1.1 kt of NH3 (+7.8%), 4.9 kt of PM2.5 (−5.5%), 5.1 kt of PM10 (−7.9%), 3.1 kt of BC (−2.5%), and 1.4 kt of OC (−7.7%). The change in emissions in each pollutant is a result of the more stringent control of fuel and engine standards, the shift in the fuel type used, and the effects of controlling some emissions. Light duty car gasoline fuel is identified as a major contributor of CO, NH3, N2O, and NMVOC, whereas trucks are the greatest emitters of NOX, SO2, and particulate matter. This study suggests that the most powerful implementation plan for the continuous, significant reduction of ozone precursor, SO2, and particulate matter emissions is the more stringent enforcement of fuel and vehicle standard levels, especially concerning light duty vehicles. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile source; air pollution control policy; air quality; urban air pollution; GAINS mobile source; air pollution control policy; air quality; urban air pollution; GAINS

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Cheewaphongphan, P.; Junpen, A.; Garivait, S.; Chatani, S. Emission Inventory of On-Road Transport in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) Development during 2007 to 2015 Using the GAINS Model. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 167.

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