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Atmosphere 2017, 8(7), 130; doi:10.3390/atmos8070130

Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS

1
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Center of Physical Chemical Methods of Research and Analysis, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050012, Kazakhstan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 20 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Air Quality)
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Abstract

Exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are the main source of urban air pollution. Quantification of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exhaust gases is needed for emissions monitoring, enforcement, development, and testing of control technologies. The objective was to develop quantification of gaseous naphthalene in diesel engine exhaust based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating and analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction of naphthalene with retracted fibers followed Fick’s law of diffusion. Extracted mass of naphthalene was proportional to Cg, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limit (p = 0.95) was 11.5 ppb (0.06 mg·m−3) at t = 9 h, Z = 10 mm and T = 40 °C, respectively. It was found that the % mass extracted of naphthalene by SPME needle assembly depended on the type of fiber. Storage time at different temperatures did not affect analyte losses extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 100 µm fiber. The developed method was tested on exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and tractor, and compared side-by-side with a direct injection of sampled exhaust gas method. Time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of naphthalene in exhaust gases from idling pickup truck and a tractor ranged from 0.08 to 0.3 mg·m−3 (15.3–53.7 ppb). View Full-Text
Keywords: PAHs; naphthalene; passive gas sampling; diesel engine exhaust; time-weighted average; solid-phase microextraction; GC-MS PAHs; naphthalene; passive gas sampling; diesel engine exhaust; time-weighted average; solid-phase microextraction; GC-MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baimatova, N.; Koziel, J.A.; Kenessov, B. Passive Sampling and Analysis of Naphthalene in Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust with Retracted SPME Device and GC-MS. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 130.

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