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Atmosphere 2017, 8(5), 81; doi:10.3390/atmos8050081

Variations of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in the Megacity of São Paulo from 2000 to 2015 in Different Time Scales

1
Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC), National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista SP 12630-000, Brazil
2
School of Chemical Engineering (FEQ), State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas SP 13083-970, Brazil
3
Department of Geography, University of Sao Paulo (USP), São Paulo SP 05508-000, Brazil
4
Research Group on Environment and Sustainability (GPMAS), University of São Francisco (USF), Itatiba SP 13251-900, Brazil
5
São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Sciences, Bauru SP 17033-360, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yuxuan Wang
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Air Pollution)
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Abstract

Air pollution is an important public health issue. High levels of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere are hazardous to human health. Studies regarding the concentration of this and other gases in the atmosphere allow political actions to manage and reduce the emission of pollutants. In this context, this paper studied the annual, seasonal, weekly and daily variations of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration for the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP). We studied three sites in the MRSP, two of them are located in areas under the influence of heavy vehicle traffic (Osasco and Congonhas) and the third one in a city park (Ibirapuera Park). The results showed high influence of gasoline vehicles on CO emission. In the annual scale, CO concentration decreased due to improvements in emission technology, despite the increasing number of vehicles. CO emission showed a seasonal, weekly and diurnal cycle associated to meteorological conditions and emission patterns. The highest values of mean concentration were observed in June/July for Osasco (2.20 ppm), Congonhas (2.04 ppm) and Ibirapuera (1.04 ppm), during the morning, due to weak dispersion of the polluting gases and higher emission from the rush hours. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon monoxide; diurnal cycle; seasonal cycle; urban pollution; pollution trends carbon monoxide; diurnal cycle; seasonal cycle; urban pollution; pollution trends
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rozante, J.R.; Rozante, V.; Souza Alvim, D.; Ocimar Manzi, A.; Barboza Chiquetto, J.; Siqueira D’Amelio, M.T.; Moreira, D.S. Variations of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations in the Megacity of São Paulo from 2000 to 2015 in Different Time Scales. Atmosphere 2017, 8, 81.

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