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Atmosphere 2016, 7(9), 116; doi:10.3390/atmos7090116

ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances

Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo 6997801, Israel
Academic Editors: Vernon Cooray and Rachidi-Haeri Farhad
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 1 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
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Abstract

Lightning produces electromagnetic fields and waves in all frequency ranges. In the extremely low frequency (ELF) range below 100 Hz, the global Schumann Resonances (SR) are excited at frequencies of 8 Hz, 14 Hz, 20 Hz, etc. This review is aimed at the reader generally unfamiliar with the Schumann Resonances. First some historical context to SR research is given, followed by some theoretical background and examples of the extensive use of Schumann resonances in a variety of lightning-related studies in recent years, ranging from estimates of the spatial and temporal variations in global lighting activity, connections to global climate change, transient luminous events and extraterrestrial lightning. Both theoretical and experimental results of the global resonance phenomenon are presented. It is our hope that this review will increase the interest in SR among researchers previously unfamiliar with this phenomenon. View Full-Text
Keywords: Schumann resonance; lightning; ELF Schumann resonance; lightning; ELF
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Price, C. ELF Electromagnetic Waves from Lightning: The Schumann Resonances. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 116.

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