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Atmosphere 2016, 7(8), 98; doi:10.3390/atmos7080098

Source Apportionment of Sulfate and Nitrate over the Pearl River Delta Region in China

1
Division of Environment, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
2
Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert W. Talbot
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 9 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Source Apportionment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2731 KB, uploaded 27 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this work, the Weather Research Forecast (WRF)–Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emission (SMOKE)–Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) modeling system with particulate source apportionment technology (PSAT) module was used to study and analyze the source apportionment of sulfate and nitrate particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region (PRD). The results show that superregional transport was an important contributor for both sulfates and nitrates in all 10 cities in this region in both February (winter) and August (summer). Especially in February, the average super-regional contribution of sulfate and nitrate reached up to 80% and 56% respectively. For the local and regional source category, power plant emissions (coal-fired and oil-fired) and industry emissions were important for sulfate formation in this region. Industry emissions and mobile emissions are important for nitrate formation in this region. In August, the sum of these two sources contributed around over 60% of local and regional nitrate. The contributions from power plant emissions and marine emissions became important in August due to the southerly prevailing wind direction. Area sources and biogenic emissions were negligible for sulfate and nitrate formation in this region. Our results reveal that cross-province cooperation is necessary for control of sulfates and nitrates in this region. View Full-Text
Keywords: source apportionment; sulfate; nitrate; CAMx; PSAT source apportionment; sulfate; nitrate; CAMx; PSAT
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, X.; Fung, J.C.H. Source Apportionment of Sulfate and Nitrate over the Pearl River Delta Region in China. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 98.

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