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Atmosphere 2016, 7(8), 97; doi:10.3390/atmos7080097

Effects of Mixed Phase Microphysical Process on Precipitation in a Simulated Convective Cloud

1
Hubei Key Laboratory for Heavy Rain Monitoring and Warning Research, Institute of Heavy Rain, China Meteorological Administration, Wuhan 430205, China
2
Key Laboratory for Aerosol Cloud-Precipitation, China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3
Hubei Lightning Protecting Center, Wuhan 430074, China
4
Wuhan Central Meteorological Observatory, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katja Friedrich
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Clouds and Precipitation)
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Abstract

The effects of the liquid water content (LWC) and mixing ratio of hydrometeors in the simulation of convective precipitation in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, are investigated using a three-dimensional convective rainstorm model. The microphysical processes of warm and cold clouds are considered into microphysical parameterization. The warm-cloud process is dominated by the combined effects of condensation and drop coalescence. The cold-cloud process is initiated mainly by production of graupel, and the microphysical parameterizations are used to predict the mixing ratio of cloud droplets, rain, ice crystals, snow, and graupel. The simulations results show that 80% rainfall is derived from warm cloud microphysical processes, and the rest is produced by cold cloud microphysical processes. The mixed phase microphysical process can invigorate the production of convective rainfall and enhance the liquid water content (LWC). In addition, the vertical distribution of LWC is mainly concentrated at the height isotherms of −10 to −20 °C in precipitation and the concentration area of LWC matches the distribution range of graupel particles. However, the growth of graupel particles depend on the microphysical processes of nucleation and propagation between rain and graupel particles (NUrg) and collision and coalescence between cloud droplets and graupel (CLcg), in which NUrg is a major source of graupel particles and the contribution of the process accounts for 77% of the amount of graupel particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid water content; convective cloud; warm cloud; ice phase; microphysical processes liquid water content; convective cloud; warm cloud; ice phase; microphysical processes
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Sun, J.; Shi, Z.; Chai, J.; Xu, G.; Niu, B. Effects of Mixed Phase Microphysical Process on Precipitation in a Simulated Convective Cloud. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 97.

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