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Atmosphere 2016, 7(7), 87; doi:10.3390/atmos7070087

A Review of ENSO Influence on the North Atlantic. A Non-Stationary Signal

1
Departamento Geofísica y Meteorología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain
2
Instituto de Geociencias (IGEO), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid 28040, Spain
3
College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QE, UK
4
Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia, Mestre 30172, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Agus Santoso
Received: 18 February 2016 / Revised: 9 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 25 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue El Niño Southern Oscillation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4465 KB, uploaded 25 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The atmospheric seasonal cycle of the North Atlantic region is dominated by meridional movements of the circulation systems: from the tropics, where the West African Monsoon and extreme tropical weather events take place, to the extratropics, where the circulation is dominated by seasonal changes in the jetstream and extratropical cyclones. Climate variability over the North Atlantic is controlled by various mechanisms. Atmospheric internal variability plays a crucial role in the mid-latitudes. However, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is still the main source of predictability in this region situated far away from the Pacific. Although the ENSO influence over tropical and extra-tropical areas is related to different physical mechanisms, in both regions this teleconnection seems to be non-stationary in time and modulated by multidecadal changes of the mean flow. Nowadays, long observational records (greater than 100 years) and modeling projects (e.g., CMIP) permit detecting non-stationarities in the influence of ENSO over the Atlantic basin, and further analyzing its potential mechanisms. The present article reviews the ENSO influence over the Atlantic region, paying special attention to the stability of this teleconnection over time and the possible modulators. Evidence is given that the ENSO–Atlantic teleconnection is weak over the North Atlantic. In this regard, the multidecadal ocean variability seems to modulate the presence of teleconnections, which can lead to important impacts of ENSO and to open windows of opportunity for seasonal predictability. View Full-Text
Keywords: El Niño-Southern Oscillation; North Atlantic region; teleconnections; Western African Monsoon; hurricanes; stratosphere; Euro-Mediterranean rainfall; North Atlantic Oscillation; Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; non-stationarity El Niño-Southern Oscillation; North Atlantic region; teleconnections; Western African Monsoon; hurricanes; stratosphere; Euro-Mediterranean rainfall; North Atlantic Oscillation; Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; non-stationarity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Fonseca, B.; Suárez-Moreno, R.; Ayarzagüena, B.; López-Parages, J.; Gómara, I.; Villamayor, J.; Mohino, E.; Losada, T.; Castaño-Tierno, A. A Review of ENSO Influence on the North Atlantic. A Non-Stationary Signal. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 87.

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