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Atmosphere 2016, 7(2), 29; doi:10.3390/atmos7020029

The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings

1
Earth System Physics Section, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151, Italy
2
Center of Excellence for Climate Change Research/Department of Meteorology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
3
Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Avd. Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain
4
Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6BB, UK
5
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1565, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Agus Santoso
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue El Niño Southern Oscillation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3940 KB, uploaded 17 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, the teleconnections from the tropical Atlantic to the Indo-Pacific region from inter-annual to centennial time scales will be reviewed. Identified teleconnections and hypotheses on mechanisms at work are reviewed and further explored in a century-long pacemaker coupled ocean-atmosphere simulation ensemble. There is a substantial impact of the tropical Atlantic on the Pacific region at inter-annual time scales. An Atlantic Niño (Niña) event leads to rising (sinking) motion in the Atlantic region, which is compensated by sinking (rising) motion in the central-western Pacific. The sinking (rising) motion in the central-western Pacific induces easterly (westerly) surface wind anomalies just to the west, which alter the thermocline. These perturbations propagate eastward as upwelling (downwelling) Kelvin-waves, where they increase the probability for a La Niña (El Niño) event. Moreover, tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies are also able to lead La Niña/El Niño development. At multidecadal time scales, a positive (negative) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation leads to a cooling (warming) of the eastern Pacific and a warming (cooling) of the western Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. The physical mechanism for this impact is similar to that at inter-annual time scales. At centennial time scales, the Atlantic warming induces a substantial reduction of the eastern Pacific warming even under CO2 increase and to a strong subsurface cooling. View Full-Text
Keywords: teleconnections; ENSO predictability; Atlantic Niño; Atlantic multidecadal oscillation; pacific decadal variability teleconnections; ENSO predictability; Atlantic Niño; Atlantic multidecadal oscillation; pacific decadal variability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kucharski, F.; Parvin, A.; Rodriguez-Fonseca, B.; Farneti, R.; Martin-Rey, M.; Polo, I.; Mohino, E.; Losada, T.; Mechoso, C.R. The Teleconnection of the Tropical Atlantic to Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Inter-Annual to Centennial Time Scales: A Review of Recent Findings. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 29.

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