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Atmosphere 2016, 7(11), 146; doi:10.3390/atmos7110146

Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marina Astitha, George Kallos and Robert W. Talbot
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
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Ninety-six particulate matter (PM10) chemical source profiles for geological sources in typical cities of southwest China were acquired from Source Profile Shared Service in China. Twenty-six elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Be, Tl and Pb), nine ions (F, Cl, SO42−, NO3, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+), and carbon-containing species (organic carbon and elemental carbon) were determined to construct these profiles. Individual source profiles were averaged and compared to quantify similarities and differences in chemical abundances using the profile-compositing method. Overall, the major components of PM10 in geological sources were crustal minerals and undefined fraction. Different chemical species could be used as tracers for various types of geological dust in the region that resulted from different anthropogenic influence. For example, elemental carbon, V and Zn could be used as tracers for urban paved road dust; Al, Si, K+ and NH4+ for agricultural soil; Al and Si for natural soil; and SO42− for urban resuspended dust. The enrichment factor analysis showed that Cu, Se, Sr and Ba were highly enriched by human activities in geological dust samples from south-west China. Elemental ratios were taken to highlight the features of geological dust from south-west China by comparing with northern urban fugitive dust, loess and desert samples. Low Si/Al and Fe/Al ratios can be used as markers to trace geological sources from southwestern China. High Pb/Al and Zn/Al ratios observed in urban areas demonstrated that urban geological dust was influenced seriously by non-crustal sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: geological dust; chemical species; enrichment factor; southwest China; elemental ratios geological dust; chemical species; enrichment factor; southwest China; elemental ratios

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Liu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Bai, Z.; Yang, W.; Zhao, X.; Han, B.; Wang, X. Characteristics of PM10 Chemical Source Profiles for Geological Dust from the South-West Region of China. Atmosphere 2016, 7, 146.

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