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Atmosphere 2015, 6(11), 1785-1800; doi:10.3390/atmos6111785

pH Control in Fog and Rain in East Asia: Temporal Advection of Clean Air Masses to Mt. Bamboo, Taiwan

1
Climatology Research Group, University of Münster, Heisenbergstr. 2, Münster 48149, Germany
2
Department of Atmospheric Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli 320, No. 300 Jhongda Road, Taiwan
3
Institut für Planetologie, University of Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 10, Münster 48149, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tao Wang
Received: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 20 November 2015
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Abstract

Fog and rain was collected during an 18-day period in January 2011 at Mt. Bamboo, northern Taiwan. Almost 300 hourly fog samples and 16 daily rain samples were taken. One single fog sample (pH 3.17) was influenced by local volcanic activity, otherwise the pH ranged from 3.23 to 6.41 in fog and from 3.59 to 6.31 in rain. All the respective air masses arrived from the northeast, but exhibited two distinct groups: Group_1 had high concentrations of all ions (median interquartile range of total ion concentrations 3200–6200 µeq.·L−1) and low pHs (median 3.52), the respective air masses had travelled over densely populated and industrialized regions of mainland China. Group_2 was from air masses with long travel times over the ocean and relatively low total ion concentrations (80–570 µeq.·L−1) and higher pHs (median 4.80). The cleanest samples are among the cleanest reported in the literature of worldwide fog and rain. In both groups, the pH was governed by the balance of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and, in some cases, calcium. The variability of these ions was higher than the variability of 10−pH, which shows that the pH is a rather robust parameter in contrast to its drivers such as non-sea-salt sulfate. View Full-Text
Keywords: fog chemistry; acid rain; East Asia; air pollution; pH fog chemistry; acid rain; East Asia; air pollution; pH
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klemm, O.; Tseng, W.-T.; Lin, C.-C.; Klemm, K.I.; Lin, N.-H. pH Control in Fog and Rain in East Asia: Temporal Advection of Clean Air Masses to Mt. Bamboo, Taiwan. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1785-1800.

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