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Atmosphere 2015, 6(11), 1714-1735; doi:10.3390/atmos6111714

Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

1
Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Benatska 2, 128 01 Prague 2, Czech Republic
2
Institute of Experimental Medicine, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Department of Vehicles and Engines, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic
4
Department of Energy Engineering, Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic
5
Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Rozvojova 2/135, 165 02 Praha 6, Czech Republic
6
Department of Automotive, Combustion Engine and Railway Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 4, 166 07 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pasquale Avino
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor and Outdoor Air Quality)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3797 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm) exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov), commuter road vicinity (Libeznice), and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice). Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines). View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafine particles; nanoparticles; UFP; air pollution; traffic load; spatial distribution; UFP source; mobile measurement; field study ultrafine particles; nanoparticles; UFP; air pollution; traffic load; spatial distribution; UFP source; mobile measurement; field study
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Stolcpartova, J.; Pechout, M.; Dittrich, L.; Mazac, M.; Fenkl, M.; Vrbova, K.; Ondracek, J.; Vojtisek-Lom, M. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic. Atmosphere 2015, 6, 1714-1735.

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