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Atmosphere 2014, 5(2), 342-369; doi:10.3390/atmos5020342
Article

Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013

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Received: 24 February 2014; in revised form: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 30 April 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Atmospheric Mercury)
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Abstract: Tropospheric sections of flights with the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) observatory from May 2005 until June 2013, are investigated for the occurrence of plumes with elevated Hg concentrations. Additional information on CO, CO2, CH4, NOy, O3, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, acetone and acetonitrile enable us to attribute the plumes to biomass burning, urban/industrial sources or a mixture of both. Altogether, 98 pollution plumes with elevated Hg concentrations and CO mixing ratios were encountered, and the Hg/CO emission ratios for 49 of them could be calculated. Most of the plumes were found over East Asia, in the African equatorial region, over South America and over Pakistan and India. The plumes encountered over equatorial Africa and over South America originate predominantly from biomass burning, as evidenced by the low Hg/CO emission ratios and elevated mixing ratios of acetonitrile, CH3Cl and particle concentrations. The backward trajectories point to the regions around the Rift Valley and the Amazon Basin, with its outskirts, as the source areas. The plumes encountered over East Asia and over Pakistan and India are predominantly of urban/industrial origin, sometimes mixed with products of biomass/biofuel burning. Backward trajectories point mostly to source areas in China and northern India. The Hg/CO2 and Hg/CH4 emission ratios for several plumes are also presented and discussed.
Keywords: mercury; emission; air; pollution mercury; emission; air; pollution
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Slemr, F.; Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Brenninkmeijer, C.; Baker, A.; Schuck, T.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Riede, H.; Leedham, E.; Hermann, M.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D.; O'Sullivan, D.; Dyroff, C.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H. Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013. Atmosphere 2014, 5, 342-369.

AMA Style

Slemr F, Weigelt A, Ebinghaus R, Brenninkmeijer C, Baker A, Schuck T, Rauthe-Schöch A, Riede H, Leedham E, Hermann M, van Velthoven P, Oram D, O'Sullivan D, Dyroff C, Zahn A, Ziereis H. Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013. Atmosphere. 2014; 5(2):342-369.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Baker, Angela; Schuck, Tanja; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Riede, Hella; Leedham, Emma; Hermann, Markus; van Velthoven, Peter; Oram, David; O'Sullivan, Debbie; Dyroff, Christoph; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut. 2014. "Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013." Atmosphere 5, no. 2: 342-369.


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