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Correction: Oniciuc, E. A.; et al. The Present and Future of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) and Whole Metagenome Sequencing (WMS) for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistant Microorganisms and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes across the Food Chain. Genes 2018, 9, 268.
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Genes 2018, 9(8), 396;

Genomic Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples in Chile

Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8320000, Chile
Center for Food Safety and Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Griffin, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Departamento de Laboratorio Biomédico, Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Santiago 7750000, Chile
Laboratorio de Investigación en Agentes Antibacterianos, Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4030000, Chile
Millennium Nucleus on Interdisciplinary Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance, Las Condes 12496, Lo Barnechea, Santiago 7690000, Chile
Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA), Universidad de Chile, Macul, Santiago 7810000, Chile
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 2 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens)
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Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, which is an uncommon but severe infection associated with high mortality rates in humans especially in high-risk groups. This bacterium survives a variety of stress conditions (e.g., high osmolality, low pH), which allows it to colonize different niches especially niches found in food processing environments. Additionally, a considerable heterogeneity in pathogenic potential has been observed in different strains. In this study, 38 isolates of L. monocytogenes collected in Chile from clinical samples (n = 22) and non-clinical samples (n = 16) were analyzed using whole genome sequencing (WGS) to determine their genomic diversity. A core genome Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) tree using 55 additional L. monocytogenes accessions classified the Chilean isolates in lineages I (n = 25) and II (n = 13). In silico, Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) differentiated the isolates into 13 sequence types (ST) in which the most common were ST1 (15 isolates) and ST9 (6 isolates) and represented 55% of the isolates. Genomic elements associated with virulence (i.e., LIPI-1, LIPI-3, inlA, inlB, inlC, inlG, inlH, inlD, inlE, inlK, inlF, and inlJ) and stress survival (i.e., stress survival islet 1 and stress survival islet 2) were unevenly distributed among clinical and non-clinical isolates. In addition, one novel inlA premature stop codon (PMSC) was detected. Comparative analysis of L. monocytogenes circulating in Chile revealed the presence of globally distributed sequence types along with differences among the isolates analyzed at a genomic level specifically associated with virulence and stress survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes; whole genome sequencing; single nucleotide polymorphism; genomic diversity; Chile Listeria monocytogenes; whole genome sequencing; single nucleotide polymorphism; genomic diversity; Chile

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Toledo, V.; den Bakker, H.C.; Hormazábal, J.C.; González-Rocha, G.; Bello-Toledo, H.; Toro, M.; Moreno-Switt, A.I. Genomic Diversity of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Clinical and Non-Clinical Samples in Chile. Genes 2018, 9, 396.

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