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Genes 2018, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9010020

Wnt, RSPO and Hippo Signalling in the Intestine and Intestinal Stem Cells

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the CAS, v. v. i., Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4, Czech Republic
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Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 22 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wnt Signaling in Stem Cells)
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Abstract

In this review, we address aspects of Wnt, R-Spondin (RSPO) and Hippo signalling, in both healthy and transformed intestinal epithelium. In intestinal stem cells (ISCs), the Wnt pathway is essential for intestinal crypt formation and renewal, whereas RSPO-mediated signalling mainly affects ISC numbers. In human colorectal cancer (CRC), aberrant Wnt signalling is the driving mechanism initiating this type of neoplasia. The signalling role of the RSPO-binding transmembrane proteins, the leucine-rich-repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptors (LGRs), is possibly more pleiotropic and not only limited to the enhancement of Wnt signalling. There is growing evidence for multiple crosstalk between Hippo and Wnt/β-catenin signalling. In the ON state, Hippo signalling results in serine/threonine phosphorylation of Yes-associated protein (YAP1) and tafazzin (TAZ), promoting formation of the β-catenin destruction complex. In contrast, YAP1 or TAZ dephosphorylation (and YAP1 methylation) results in β-catenin destruction complex deactivation and β-catenin nuclear localization. In the Hippo OFF state, YAP1 and TAZ are engaged with the nuclear β-catenin and participate in the β-catenin-dependent transcription program. Interestingly, YAP1/TAZ are dispensable for intestinal homeostasis; however, upon Wnt pathway hyperactivation, the proteins together with TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors drive the transcriptional program essential for intestinal cell transformation. In addition, in many CRC cells, YAP1 phosphorylation by YES proto-oncogene 1 tyrosine kinase (YES1) leads to the formation of a transcriptional complex that includes YAP1, β-catenin and T-box 5 (TBX5) DNA-binding protein. YAP1/β-catenin/T-box 5-mediated transcription is necessary for CRC cell proliferation and survival. Interestingly, dishevelled (DVL) appears to be an important mediator involved in both Wnt and Hippo (YAP1/TAZ) signalling and some of the DVL functions were assigned to the nuclear DVL pool. Wnt ligands can trigger alternative signalling that directly involves some of the Hippo pathway components such as YAP1, TAZ and TEADs. By upregulating Wnt pathway agonists, the alternative Wnt signalling can inhibit the canonical Wnt pathway activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; Hippo pathway; LGR; R-Spondins; YAP1/TAZ; Wnt/β-catenin signalling colorectal cancer; Hippo pathway; LGR; R-Spondins; YAP1/TAZ; Wnt/β-catenin signalling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kriz, V.; Korinek, V. Wnt, RSPO and Hippo Signalling in the Intestine and Intestinal Stem Cells. Genes 2018, 9, 20.

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