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Genes 2015, 6(4), 1347-1360; doi:10.3390/genes6041347

Disruption of the Gut Microbiome: Clostridium difficile Infection and the Threat of Antibiotic Resistance

Infection and Immunity Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jonathan Iredell
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Resistance: Mobility and Microbiomes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [102 KB, uploaded 21 December 2015]

Abstract

Clostridium difficile is well recognized as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, having a significant impact in both health-care and community settings. Central to predisposition to C. difficile infection is disruption of the gut microbiome by antibiotics. Being a Gram-positive anaerobe, C. difficile is intrinsically resistant to a number of antibiotics. Mobile elements encoding antibiotic resistance determinants have also been characterized in this pathogen. While resistance to antibiotics currently used to treat C. difficile infection has not yet been detected, it may be only a matter of time before this occurs, as has been seen with other bacterial pathogens. This review will discuss C. difficile disease pathogenesis, the impact of antibiotic use on inducing disease susceptibility, and the role of antibiotic resistance and mobile elements in C. difficile epidemiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridium difficile; antibiotic-associated diarrhea; microbiome; microbiota; antibiotic resistance; mobile genetic elements Clostridium difficile; antibiotic-associated diarrhea; microbiome; microbiota; antibiotic resistance; mobile genetic elements
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Johanesen, P.A.; Mackin, K.E.; Hutton, M.L.; Awad, M.M.; Larcombe, S.; Amy, J.M.; Lyras, D. Disruption of the Gut Microbiome: Clostridium difficile Infection and the Threat of Antibiotic Resistance. Genes 2015, 6, 1347-1360.

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