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Genes 2015, 6(3), 790-811; doi:10.3390/genes6030790

Chromatin Insulators and Topological Domains: Adding New Dimensions to 3D Genome Architecture

1
Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Lab for Retinal Cell Biology, University of Zurich, Wagistrasse 14, Zurich 8952, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jessica Tyler
Received: 8 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Dynamics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1246 KB, uploaded 1 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

The spatial organization of metazoan genomes has a direct influence on fundamental nuclear processes that include transcription, replication, and DNA repair. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms that shape the 3D organization of the eukaryotic genomes. Chromatin insulators have emerged as one of the central components of the genome organization tool-kit across species. Recent advancements in chromatin conformation capture technologies have provided important insights into the architectural role of insulators in genomic structuring. Insulators are involved in 3D genome organization at multiple spatial scales and are important for dynamic reorganization of chromatin structure during reprogramming and differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the classical view and our renewed understanding of insulators as global genome organizers. We will also discuss the plasticity of chromatin structure and its re-organization during pluripotency and differentiation and in situations of cellular stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulators; architectural proteins; TAD boundaries; chromatin architecture insulators; architectural proteins; TAD boundaries; chromatin architecture
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Matharu, N.K.; Ahanger, S.H. Chromatin Insulators and Topological Domains: Adding New Dimensions to 3D Genome Architecture. Genes 2015, 6, 790-811.

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