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Cells 2018, 7(6), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells7060051

Fluorescent, Bioluminescent, and Optogenetic Approaches to Study Excitable Physiology in the Single Cardiomyocyte

1
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
2
BHF Centre of Research Excellence, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
3
Department of Cardiology, Oxford University NHS Hospitals Trust, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
4
BHF Centre of Regenerative Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK
5
Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods to Monitor Single Live Cells)
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Abstract

This review briefly summarizes the single cell application of classical chemical dyes used to visualize cardiomyocyte physiology and their undesirable toxicities which have the potential to confound experimental observations. We will discuss, in detail, the more recent iterative development of fluorescent and bioluminescent protein-based indicators and their emerging application to cardiomyocytes. We will discuss the integration of optical control strategies (optogenetics) to augment the standard imaging approach. This will be done in the context of potential applications, and barriers, of these technologies to disease modelling, drug toxicity, and drug discovery efforts at the single-cell scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; voltage; fluorescent protein; bioluminescence; optogenetics; chemical dye; cardiomyocyte; FRET; adult ventricular cardiomyocyte; iPS-cardiomyocyte; excitable cell physiology calcium; voltage; fluorescent protein; bioluminescence; optogenetics; chemical dye; cardiomyocyte; FRET; adult ventricular cardiomyocyte; iPS-cardiomyocyte; excitable cell physiology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Broyles, C.N.; Robinson, P.; Daniels, M.J. Fluorescent, Bioluminescent, and Optogenetic Approaches to Study Excitable Physiology in the Single Cardiomyocyte. Cells 2018, 7, 51.

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