Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cells 2013, 2(2), 266-283; doi:10.3390/cells2020266
Review

Linking Metabolic Abnormalities to Apoptotic Pathways in Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes

1,2
, 3
 and 1,2,*
Received: 14 February 2013; in revised form: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 5 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apoptosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [322 KB, uploaded 26 April 2013]
Abstract: Pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis is an important feature of islets in type 2 diabetes. Apoptosis can occur through two major pathways, the extrinsic or death receptor mediated pathway, and the intrinsic or Bcl-2-regulated pathway. Hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and islet amyloid poly-peptide (IAPP) represent important possible causes of increased beta-cell apoptosis. Hyperglycaemia induces islet-cell apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway involving molecules of the Bcl-2 family. High concentrations of palmitate also activate intrinsic apoptosis in islets cells. IAPP oligomers can induce apoptosis by both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. IL-1b produced through NLRP3 inflammasome activation can also induce islet cell death. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome may not be important for glucose or palmitate induced apoptosis in islets but may be important for IAPP mediated cell death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress have been observed in beta cells in type 2 diabetes, and these could be the link between upstream metabolic abnormalities and downstream apoptotic machinery.
Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; pancreatic beta cell; apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxidative stress; NLRP3 inflammasome; Bcl-2 pathway Type 2 diabetes; pancreatic beta cell; apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxidative stress; NLRP3 inflammasome; Bcl-2 pathway
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Wali, J.A.; Masters, S.L.; Thomas, H.E. Linking Metabolic Abnormalities to Apoptotic Pathways in Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes. Cells 2013, 2, 266-283.

AMA Style

Wali JA, Masters SL, Thomas HE. Linking Metabolic Abnormalities to Apoptotic Pathways in Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes. Cells. 2013; 2(2):266-283.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wali, Jibran A.; Masters, Seth L.; Thomas, Helen E. 2013. "Linking Metabolic Abnormalities to Apoptotic Pathways in Beta Cells in Type 2 Diabetes." Cells 2, no. 2: 266-283.


Cells EISSN 2073-4409 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert